This area of practice is chosen because it is an area of practice that is of everyday importance both in the pharmacist practice setting in the community as well as in the hospital-based setting. Not all gastrointestinal symptoms are red flags but it is certainly important to be able to recognise which patients have self-limiting disease and which have early serious disease that needs to be identified in time. A systematic approach in history taking, clinical examination, appropriate investigations, suitable empiric over the counter treatment and timing referral to our gastroenterologist colleagues will stand all of us in good stead. Adequate patient education, explanation and follow-up is also important.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
- Explain the underlying causes of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
- Understand the difference between symptom-based esophageal GERD syndromes and extraesophageal GERD syndromes.
- Identify the desired therapeutic outcomes for patients with GERD.
- Recommend appropriate nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions for patients with GERD.
- Formulate a monitoring plan to assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapy for GERD.
- Educate patients on appropriate lifestyle modifications and drug therapy issues including compliance, adverse effects, and drug interactions.
Peptic Ulcer Disease
- Recognize differences between ulcers induced by Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammator drugs (NSAIDs), and stress-related mucosal damage (SRMD) in terms of risk factors, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, clinical course, and prognosis.
- Identify desired therapeutic outcomes for patients with pylori–associated ulcers and NSAID-induced ulcers.
- Identify factors that guide selection of an pylori eradication regimen and improve adherence with these regimens.
- Determine the appropriate management for a patient taking a nonselective NSAID who is at high risk for ulcer-related gastrointestinal (GI) complications (eg, GI bleed) or who develops an ulcer.
- Employ an algorithm for evaluation and treatment of a patient with signs and symptoms suggestive of H. pylori–associated or NSAID-induced ulcer.
- Given patient-specific information and the prescribed treatment regimen, formulate a monitoring plan for drug therapy either to eradicate pylori or to treat an active NSAID-induced ulcer or gastrointestinal(GI) complication.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Characterize the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
- Recognize the signs and symptoms of IBD, including major differences between ulcerative colitis (UC)and Crohn disease (CD).
- Identify appropriate therapeutic outcomes for patients with IBD.
- Describe pharmacologic treatment options for patients with acute or chronic symptoms of UC and CD.
- Create a patient-specific drug treatment plan based on symptoms, severity, and location of UC or CD.
- Recommend appropriate monitoring parameters and patient education for drug treatments for IBD.
Pathogenesis , Symptoms , Complications , Diagnosis , Therapy goals
Treatments , Combination therapy , Maintenance therapy , GERD Pearls
Etiology , Pathophysiology
Clinical Presentation , Diagnosis
Treatment , Prevention , PUD Pearls
Overview , Epidemiology , Etiology , Incidence
Parthenogenesis , Pathology , Risk Factors
Clinical Presentation , Differential Diagnosis , Laboratory Tests , Complications
Differentiating IBD from IBS , Treatment Goals , Pharmacological and non pharmacological Treatment options
Biologic Agents , Biosimilars , Treatment Algorithm , Life Modification , IBD Pearls